The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Image showing Kristoffer Ekberg in front of bookshelf

Kristoffer Ekberg

Associate senior lecturer

Image showing Kristoffer Ekberg in front of bookshelf

Crafting counter frames : Shell's corporate strategies in the Nigeria campaign, 1995–1998


  • Kristoffer Ekberg
  • Andrés Brink Pinto

Summary, in English

In this article we analyse the actions of Royal Dutch/Shell (since 2021, Shell) considering the campaign against them and their operations in Nigeria in the mid-1990s. Using the concept counter-frames we analyse Shell's internal documentation of the campaign to understand how a multinational extractive industry engaged in disputes of legitimacy and against critiques of their operations. Focusing on frame disputes in the campaign the article contributes with an understanding of the practical development of counter-frames. Using historical records in the form of internal situational reports circulated among subsidiaries during the campaign period we show how different strategies such as lobbying, individual contacts, embedded journalists, production of information products and the development of social programs all were developed through a historical and contingent process between subsidiaries, the public and social movement organisations. Rather than solely identifying strategies used by oil companies the paper expose and analyse the internal logics of Shell which add important insights on the development of corporate strategies in in light of environmental and human right campaigns, legislations and standards.


  • History
  • Department of Gender Studies

Publishing year





The Extractive Industries and Society



Document type

Journal article




  • History
  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary


  • Counter-frames
  • Corporate strategy
  • Environmental conflicts
  • Fossil fuel extractivism
  • Legitimacy




  • ISSN: 2214-790X