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Tomas Germundsson

Professor emeritus


Climate extremes – a study of vulnerability, adaptation, and loss & damage in relation to the 2018 drought, focusing on Southern Sweden


  • Sara Brogaard
  • Tomas Germundsson
  • Emily Boyd
  • Iris Hertog

Summary, in English

The extreme weather in terms of drought and heat, which prevailed in Northern Europe during the growing season 2018, had serious consequences for agriculture and farmers in Sweden. Many questions regarding farm production came to a head as drought struck directly against farmers land, economy and wellbeing. This paper argues that it is essential to deeper investigate farmer’s and other land user’s experiences and actions during the drought period and the immediately following situation, also in a high-income country context. The overall aim is therefore to increase the knowledge on multiple factor vulnerability and adaptive capacities with insights across selected rural livelihoods, focusing on Southern Sweden. We emphasize questions such as who, when and how rural land users are affected. In the study, we interpret loss and damage as “limits to adaptation” and consider both economic and non-economic dimensions for crop growers, animal keepers and horse businesses. The study is mainly based on qualitative data collection methods, such as semi-structured interviews in combination with seasonal calendars, and complemented with questionnaires.
Preliminary findings indicate that impacts on crop growers are highly related to possibilities for irrigation and access to water use permits, but also to soil quality. In comparison to animal keepers their experienced impact can be considered being ‘intermediate’ in temporal terms. For animal keepers the experienced impacts are simultaneously more immediate, due to acute fodder shortage, and more long term, because of changing stock compositions, animal health, and reproduction – possibly also giving rise to higher levels of concern and worry. In the paper we further discuss if, and when, rural livelihoods are potentially given up in the wake of extreme weather events. We believe that this study can help define factors of vulnerability, loss and damage in a Global North context.


  • Institutionen för kulturgeografi och ekonomisk geografi
  • BECC: Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate






Konferensbidrag: abstract


  • Economic Geography

Conference name

Conference on Loss and Damage

Conference date

2019-10-30 - 2019-11-01

Conference place

Lund, Sweden