Javascript is not activated in your browser. This website needs javascript activated to work properly.
You are here


AFRINT IV/Papaya - Policy for Equity in African Agriculture - is a follow up study in a sub-sample of Afrint villages in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia. The project is headed by Professor Agnes Andersson Djurfeldt.

Afrint IV/Papaya is part of SAIRLA – Sustainable Agricultural Intensification Research and Learning in Africa - a research programme funded by the UK Department of International Development, through Wyg and the Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich. The project brings together collaborators from the Department of Human Geography at Lund University, the University of Malawi, Sokoine University of Agriculture, the University of Zambia, the Lund University Centre of Sustainabilty Science (LUCSUS), the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Gamos Ltd.

The aim of the project is to analyze patterns of smallholder intensification in Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi from a sustainability perspective with a particular attention to gender and youth and the ways existing rural institutions could be enabled and incentivized to improve equity given prevailing policies, norms and structures.

The project addresses four main research questions

  • ​To what extent has intensification of smallholder agriculture in Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania 2002-2013 led to soil degradation and poor land management?
  • ​To what extent and how is the relationship between intensification and soil degradation/land management mediated by gender and age?
  • ​To what extent and how has intensification reconfigured intra-household relations in terms of gender and age?
  • What is the role of local institutions in creating sustainable intensification? How can these roles be improved to increase equity?

​The project will provide empirical evidence to improve Sustainable Intensification approaches and policies to ensure the needs and interests of poorer smallholders, especially youth and women. The research contextualises findings at the district level as well as within national agricultural policies, processes of institutional change, the changing landscape of risk and broader demographic and socio-economic shifts. 


Research briefs and summaries


PDF iconPapaya Research Summary 2

Whilst trends in landholdings in Malawi and Tanzania share similar characteristics, Zambian data often shows the opposite. Considering all three countries together hides more than it illuminates.  In Malawi and Tanzania, significant differences in landholdings across age categories in 2002 disappeared by 2013: in other words, landholdings became more equal across the age categories in the stable Afrint households considered here.

PDF iconPapaya Research Summary 1

Gendered yield gaps within snapshot survey cross-sections hide considerable churn of households which change status between waves of a panel dataset. When we compare Afrint households which have consistently had a man or woman managing the farm in 2002, 2008 and 2013/15, gendered yield gaps for maize disappear. Women have performed as well as men.

PDF iconPapaya Policy Brief E - Policy for Equity in Central-Eastern Africa 2002 - 2017

The extent to which agricultural policy frameworks in Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi integrate gender and generation into intensification activities varies

PDF iconPapaya Policy Brief D - Policy for Equity in Tanzanian Agriculture 2002 - 2017

Data from a total of 400 households in Iringa and Morogoro districts during two waves of panel data (2002, 2008 and 2015) illustrates a rapidly changing rural landscape: average maize yields and sales have increased significantly in both districts; the use of tractors has increased considerably; the average area under paddy has increased slightly whilst paddy production almost doubled between 2002 and 2015.

PDF iconPapaya Policy Brief C - Policy for Equity in Zambian Agriculture 2002 - 2016

Policy frameworks in Zambia mainly refer to gender in terms of mainstreaming, ensuring an equitable number of beneficiaries within programmes and the importance of targeting women. However, none offer clear guidelines on how these aims are to be operationalized.

PDF iconPapaya Policy Brief B - Policy for Equity in Malawian Agriculture 2002 - 2016

This Policy Brief summarises initial analysis of trends in agricultural intensification and district-level actors engagement with gender and generation within Ntchisi and Dedza districts, Malawi, via analysis of panel data from 2002 - 2013 and stakeholder workshops in December 2016.

PDF iconBaseline Background Note

This background note is intended to provide an initial review of the policy framework regulating gender and generational equity in sustainable agricultural intensification in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia.


Researcher teams

Afrint IV, like its three predecessors, is an African-Swedish research project, building on close to two decades of co-operation between Lund University and a number of research institutes in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia.

Swedish team

Malawian team

Tanzanian team

Zambian team

Political economy team

  • Associate Professor Anna Mdee, Overseas Development Institute/University of Leeds

Policy impact team



The Department of Human Geography
and the Human Ecology Division

Address: Sölvegatan 10,
223 62 Lund
Phone: 046-222 17 59

Faculty of Social Sciences