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Foto hemsida

Karin Lindsjö

Programme coordinator

Foto hemsida

"Everybody knows every child should be educated" : The Strive Towards Universal Primary Education in Tanzania


  • Karin Lindsjö

Summary, in English

In 2001, the first Primary Education Development Plan declared that the previous obligatory primary education fee was to be abolished in Tanzania. This was an attempt to increase the access to public primary education for all children. This thesis aims to understand how the reform and its focus on the abolition of school fee influences parents’ and caregivers’ support for primary education and impacts on children’s inclusion and possibilities to receive education.

In rural and urban contexts parents and caregivers as well as teachers have shared their opinions on the obligatory primary education and this thesis explores the values of education, the perceptions of quality, children’s possibilities to participate in education as well as the links between education and livelihoods in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

Six study sites were included in the study: three rural and three urban areas. The empirical data draws on a mixed-methods approach, including interviews with primary school teachers, interviews and focus group discussions with parents and caregivers of primary school aged children, a household survey, and interviews with key informants.

This thesis concludes that the previous obligatory primary education fee has been replaced by obligatory parental contributions. Furthermore, this thesis suggests that regardless of socio-economic background or geographical context parents and caregivers highly value education as it is perceived necessary to be able to find employment, move out of poverty and leave the traditional rural livelihoods. By contrast, children’s ability to receive education as well as schools ability to provide education is contextual and geographical variations are manifested in the inclusivity of children in primary education.


  • Department of Human Geography

Publishing year





Meddelande från Institutionen för kulturgeografi och ekonomisk geografi. Avhandlingar



Document type



Lund University


  • Social and Economic Geography


  • Universal Primary Education
  • parental perceptions
  • quality
  • inclusion
  • contributions
  • rura-urban conditions
  • rural livelihoods
  • Iringa Region
  • Tanzania
  • grundskola
  • föräldraperspektiv
  • skolkvalité
  • inklusion
  • skolbidrag
  • rurala-urbana förhållande
  • ruralt levebröd
  • Iringa
  • Tanzania




  • Agnes Andersson Djurfeldt
  • Barbara Schulte


  • ISBN: 978-91-7753-469-3
  • ISBN: 978-91-7753-470-9

Defence date

30 November 2017

Defence time


Defence place

Världen, Geocentrum I, Sölvegatan 10, Lund


  • Jonas Lindberg (Docent)